Monitoring atmospheric composition & climate

The primary objective of FIR is the implementation of a fire emission service that produces accurate emission estimates from biomass buring for use in the global and regional MACC-II data assimilation and modelling sytems.  The estimates will be provided in NRT throughout the project duration.  Adtionally, retrospective fire emissions will be provided for use in the MACC-II and eventual follow-on reanalyses.  All products will be publicly available and discussed with the scientific community.

Local and regional air quality is dominated by smoke during wildfire episodes.  Globally, biomass buring is a significant source for various aerosols and reactive and greenhouse gasses:  For example, fires are the dominant source of organic matter, which is the dominant aerosol in terms of average aerosol optical depth.  Fire emissions also contribute approximately 40% of the carbon monoxide emissions and the carbon emission rate of open vegetation buring amounts to 25-45% of the corresponding rate due to fossil fuel consumption, globally.  Since biomass buring is highly variable on all timescales from hours to decades an accurate representation of smoke in the atmosphere requires fire-emission input data that is derived from observations of the actual fires.

While MACC project is setting up the basic fire service, the focus MACC-II will be on improving the system with respect to accuracy, operational stability and usability.  The NRT service is based on fire radiative power (FRP) observation from low-earth-orbit and geostationary satellites, currently Terra, Aqua and Meteosat-9.  The addition of FRP observations from further satellites (GOES, possibly MTSAT, FY2C, Sentinel-3 and NPP) will improve the accuracy of the emission estimates, enable better temporal resolution, and safeguard against a failure of one of the currently used satellite instruments.  Retrospective data will be provided based on the well established GFED inventory and updates that follow new scientific developments.  Conversion and emission factors will be calibrated according to the validation results produced in collabration with other MACC-II sub projects.

The sub-project team comprises the MACC partners, who are world-leading experts in the fields of satellite fire products (KCL), fire emission modelling (VUA, JULICH) and data assimilation (ECMWF), plus an additional operational centre for land satellite products (IM).

The acquisition of satellite products and archiving at ECMWF will be performed by the OBS sub-project.  GDA will use the global fire assimilation system (GFAS) developed by FIR for the routine fire emission calculation and product delivery, and offer a user service desk.  GHG, GRG, AER, GDA, EDA and ENS will use the fire emissions as input data in their services.  FIR will interact closeley with these sub-projects to ensure that their requirements from the fire service are met by FIR whenever scientifically and technically possible.  Furthermore, feedback from these sub-projects will enable validation and improvment of the FIR service beyond the current level of scientific understanding.  The validation will be coordinated by VAL and be in close collaboartion with EMI.  Public user interfaces to the FIR service will be provided by POL and INT.

Synergies with the GEOLAND2 project will be exploited by implementing the GOES-based FRP production in the service chain of Copernicus land monitoring service at IM.  Collaboration with the JRC pilot study "Global multi-hazard forecasting information platform for whether driven natural disasters" at ECMWF is planned to provide benefits for the short-term fire forecasting in FIR.  Other opportunities for synergies will be sought by liaison with othr fire monitoring entities like EFFIS (JRC), GFMC (University of Freiburg), SAFER, NRL, IPE-CPTEC and the wider scientific community.  Liaison with ESA, EUMETSAT and NASA/NOAA will facilitate continued availability of suitable input products.